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Absolute Monarchies 186 Historical Perspectives: Why Did Russia and Western Europe Diverge? 193 Topic Practice Questions 194
Topic 3.8 Comparison in the Age of Absolutism and Constitutionalism 197 Essential Question: How were different forms of political power that developed
from 1648 to 1815 similar and different?
Questions About Comparison 198
UNIT 3—Review 199 Write as a Historian: Use Chronological Order 199 Long Essay Questions 200 Document-Based Question 201
Topic 4.1 Contextualizing the Scientific Revolution and
the Enlightenment 204
Essential Question: What was the context in which the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment developed in Europe?
Analyze the Context 205
Topic 4.2 The Scientific Revolution 206 Essential Question: How did understanding of the natural world develop and
change during the Scientific Revolution?
The Scientific Method 206 Observation-Based Science 207 Topic Practice Questions 212
Topic 4.3 The Enlightenment 214 Essential Question: What were the causes and consequences of Enlightenment
thought on European society, and what was its influence on intellectual
development from 1648 to 1815?
Rational and Empirical Thought 214 Spread of Enlightenment Ideas 221 Religion and Toleration 223 Mercantilism During the Enlightenment 225 Topic Practice Questions 228
Topic 4.4 18th-Century Society and Demographics 230 Essential Question: What factors contributed to demographic changes from
1648 to 1815, and what were the consequences of those changes?
Population Growth 230 The Agricultural Revolution 231 Improvements in Health 233 Marriage and Children 234 Life in Cities 237 Topic Practice Questions 239
Topic 4.5 18th-Century Culture and Arts 241 Essential Question: How was European cultural and intellectual life maintained
and how did it change from 1648 to 1815?
Advancing a Market Economy 241 viii EUROPEAN HISTORY: AP® EDITION
 UNIT 4 — Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments c. 1648 to c. 1815












































































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