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Topic 7.4 Darwinism, Social Darwinism 443 Essential Question: How did Darwin’s theories influence scientific and social developments from 1815 to 1914?
Science of Charles Darwin 443 Social Darwinism 444 Topic Practice Questions 445
Topic 7.5 The Age of Progress and Modernity 447 Learning Objective: How did science and other intellectual disciplines develop
and change from 1815 to 1914?
Materialism in Philosophy, Science, and Economics 447 Modernism in Intellectual and Cultural Life 448 Topic Practice Questions 450
Topic 7.6 New Imperialism: Motivations and Methods 453 Essential Question: What were the motivations and technological advances that helped advance European imperialism from 1815 to 1914?
Motives of Imperialism in Africa and Asia 453 Technological and Industrial Developments 456 Improving Communication and Transportation 458 Topic Practice Questions 460
Topic 7.7 Imperialism’s Global Effects 462 Essential Question: How did imperialism affect European and non-
European societies?
Imperial Tensions and Debate 462 Colonial Challenges to Imperialism 467 Topic Practice Questions 471
Topic 7.8 19th-Century Culture and Arts 473 Essential Question: What were the continuities and changes in European artistic expression from 1815 to 1914?
Romanticism in Art, Music, and Literature 473 Realist Art and Literature 478 Modern Art 480 Topic Practice Questions 482
Topic 7.9 Causation in 19th-Century Perspectives and
Political Developments 484
Essential Question: What was the influence of nationalistic and imperialistic movements on European and global stability?
Questions About Causation 485
UNIT 7—Review 486 Write as a Historian: Identify Continuity and Change 486 Long Essay Questions 487 Document-Based Question 488
UNIT 8 — 20th-Century Global Conflicts c. 1914 to Present
Topic 8.1 Contextualizing 20th-Century Global Conflicts 492 Essential Question: What was the context in which global conflict developed in the 20th century?
Analyze the Context 493 CONTENTS xiii
 














































































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