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Topic 8.2 World War I 494 Essential Question: What were the causes and effects of World War I?
Militarism and Nationalism in Europe 494 World War I Begins 495 New Technologies in Weapons 497 Protest and Insurrection 498 Global Conflict 499 The Balance of Power Shifts 500 Topic Practice Questions 501
Topic 8.3 The Russian Revolution and Its Effects 503 Essential Question: What were the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution?
Responses to Industrialization 503 The Russian Revolution and Lenin 504 Civil War 507 Lenin’s New Economic Policy 507 Topic Practice Questions 508
Topic 8.4 Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement 510 Essential Question: How and why did the settlement of World War I fail to resolve political, economic, and diplomatic challenges of the early 20th century?
The Peace Settlement 510 The League of Nations 512 Topic Practice Questions 514
Topic 8.5 Global Economic Crisis 517 Essential Question: What were the causes and effects of the global economic
crisis of the 1920s and 1930s?
Worldwide Economic Weaknesses 517 Financial Collapse 518 Attempts to Overcome the Great Depression 519 German Extremism 520 Topic Practice Questions 521
Topic 8.6 Fascism and Totalitarianism 523 Essential Question: What factors led to the development of fascist and
totalitarian regimes in the aftermath of World War I?
Essential Question: What were the consequences of Stalin’s economic policies
and totalitarian rule in the Soviet Union?
Fascism and Authoritarian Rule 523 Franco and the Spanish Civil War 526 Authoritarian Dictatorships 528 The Soviet Union Under Stalin 528 Historical Perspectives: What Was the Appeal of Fascism? 532 Topic Practice Questions 533
Topic 8.7 Europe During the Interwar Period 535 Essential Question: How and why did political and ideological factors result in
the catastrophe of World War II?
Appeasement and Expansion 535 Topic Practice Questions 538
xiv EUROPEAN HISTORY: AP® EDITION

















































































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