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3. Based on the information in the passage, which word most accurately describes Bruni’s intellectual interests?
(A) Humanism (B) Scholasticism (C) Despotism (D) Naturalism
Use the passage below to answer all parts of the question that follows.
“But since my intent is to write a thing that is useful for whoever understands it, it seemed to me more appropriate to go after the effectual truth of the thing than the imagination of it. And many have imagined republics and principalities that have never been seen or known to exist in truth. For there is such a distance from how one lives to how one ought to live that he who abandons what is done for what ought to be done learns what will ruin him rather than what will save him, since a man who would wish to make a career of being good in every detail must come to ruin among so many who are not good. Hence it is necessary for a prince, if he wishes to maintain himself, to learn to be able not to be good, and to use this faculty and not to use it according to necessity.
Thus, leaving behind the things that have been imagined about a prince, and discussing those that are true, I say that all men, when they are spoken about, and especially princes, because they are placed higher, are noted for some of the following qualities, which bring them either blame or praise. That is to say that one man is held liberal, one a miser; one is held a giver, one rapacious [greedy]; one cruel, one compassionate. The one is held a breaker of faith, the other faithful; the one effeminate and pusillanimous [timid], the other fierce and spirited . . .”
1. a)
—Niccoló Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513 Describe ONE argument the author makes regarding the methods a
ruler should use to achieve political goals.
b) Explain how Machiavelli’s argument was influenced by classic Greek and Roman political beliefs.
Explain how the writings of Machiavelli and other Humanists challenged traditional political beliefs.

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