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• Members of the clergy would stay unmarried.
• Confession of sins to a priest (rather than directly to God) remained vital.
• The idea of transubstantiation, or that during communion the bread and wine consumed by chuch members actually became the body and blood of Jesus Christ (rather than being a symbol of Jesus’ sacrifice) was still an official belief.
These beliefs divided Catholics and Protestants.
The Church of England became known as the Anglican Church. Anglicans
did not all agree with how closely they should keep to Catholic traditions and doctrine. Those who wanted to remain close to Catholic doctrine were known as “High Church,” while those who were more influenced by Protestant doctrines and practices were known as “Low Church.”
Two Brief Reigns Following Henry’s death, his young son Edward became king. He reigned for only six years (1547–1553) before dying at age 15. During these years, the government became more Low Church.
However, his successor, Mary Tudor (reigned 1553–1558), took the country in the opposite direction. She tried to restore Catholicism to England. Those in England who had not wanted to break with Rome supported her, as did her powerful husband, the Spanish king Philip II. Mary’s persecution of some Anglican bishops earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary.”
Elizabeth Takes Control After Mary Tudor’s death, her half-sister, Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603), tried to find a middle ground, sometimes called the Elizabethan Settlement or the Anglican Compromise, that would end religious turmoil. She returned to Anglicanism, rejecting both Roman Catholicism and Calvinism (Puritanism). During her long reign, she avoided harsh persecution of people who practiced their own beliefs quietly.
Elizabeth was determined to restore the Anglican Church in England and keep England from returning to Catholicism. At the same time, she wanted to prevent more radical reform movements from growing. One such radical group, the Puritans, wanted to “purify” the Church of England, demanding the elimination of clerical dress and removal of Catholics from England. These Puritans became a serious source of discontent and opposition to the Church of England, and therefore the crown. Some sought freedom to practice their religion in North America. But those who stayed in England would later directly threaten the power of the monarchy. Overall, however, during her long reign, Elizabeth established a number of official acts that helped solidify control over the religious life and morality of the English people.
  Act of Supremacy
  • Redeclared the King of England the head of the Church of England
• Acknowledged Elizabeth as the head of the Church of England

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