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Essential Question: What were the causes and effects of the development of political institutions from 1450 to 1648?
       KEY TERMS
decentralized power centralized power Henry VIII
Mary Tudor
Act of Supremacy Elizabeth I
new monarchies modern state King Ferdinand Queen Isabella
Concordat of Bologna Edict of Nantes Huguenots
Star Chamber
Diet of Augsburg Schmalkaldic League Peace of Augsburg guilds
nobles of the robe
Niccolò Machiavelli Machiavellianism Jean Bodin
absolute sovereignty Hugo Grotius natural law
Questions 1–3 refer to the following passage.
“The first attribute of the sovereign prince therefore is the power to make law binding on all his subjects in general and on each in particular. But to avoid any ambiguity one must add that he does so without the consent of any superior, equal, or inferior being necessary. If the prince can only make law with the consent of a superior he is a subject; if of an equal he shares his sovereignty; if of an inferior, whether it be a council of magnates [powerful individuals] or the people, it is not he who is sovereign...
But because law is an imprecise and general term, it is as well to specify the other attributes of sovereignty comprised in it, such as the making of war and peace. This is one of the most important rights of sovereignty, since it brings in its train either the ruin or the salvation of the state...
The third attribute of sovereignty is the power to institute the great officers of state...
The fourth attribute of sovereignty, and one which has always been among its principal rights, is that the prince should be the final resort of appeal from all other courts.”
—Jean Bodin, Six Books of the Commonwealth, 1576 TOPIC 1.5 NEW MONARCHIES 33

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