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France also established colonies in the West Indies beginning in the 1620s. While the islands such as Martinique and Guadeloupe that the French colonized were small, the sugar these islands produced made them very valuable.
  THE ATLANTIC STATES IN THE AMERICAS AND ASIA, 15TH TO 17TH CENTURIES
 Atlantic Nation
  Explorers
  Lands Claimed
  Economic Activities
   England
  John Cabot
 Parts of Canada; Jamestown; smaller islands in West Indies (including Barbados and Bermuda); by 1670, 11 of the 13 colonies that would become the United States
   British East India Company, established 1601; competed with Portuguese and Dutch for trade in Asia
   France
  Giovanni Verrazano, Jacques Cartier, Samuel de Champlain
 Area of St. Lawrence River in Canada; established trading post at Quebec, 1608; established New France in Canada; colonies in West Indies, including Martinique and Guadeloupe
   Fur trading in Quebec; sugar plantations in West Indies
   The Netherlands
  Willem Schouten (discovered route to Pacific around southern tip of South America, 1615–1616)
 Established colony of New Amsterdam, which was taken over by England and renamed New York
   Focused on developing trade network; established Dutch
East India Company (1602) for Asian trade and Dutch West India Company (1621) for trade in the Americas
  Rivalries Among European Powers
As European states competed for trade, rivalries and conflicts developed among them in the 17th and 18th centuries. Because countries adopted the mercantilist idea that the amount of worldwide wealth was limited, they believed that their wealth could grow only at the expense of their neighbors.
Growing Trade Rivalries Competition for wealth and resources took place all over the globe. For example, the Portuguese had first sought to dominate the trade in spices and silk from Asia in the early 16th century. When the Spanish colonized the Philippines after 1570, they began to compete with the Portuguese. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Dutch successfully challenged the Portuguese for dominance of the spice trade when they established a strong presence in the Spice Islands. While Portuguese military efforts had been successful against Muslim traders in the region, they were less successful against the Dutch. In addition, even though the British East India Company had been established before the Dutch came to the region, the Dutch were strong enough economically to force the British to cede the trade in the islands and to shift their focus to India, which was ruled by the Mughal Empire.
TOPIC 1.7 RIVALS ON THE WORLD STAGE 47












































































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