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Overseas European Empires 41 Topic Practice Questions 49
Topic 1.8 Colonial Expansion and Columbian Exchange 51 Essential Question: What were the economic, social, and cultural impacts of
European colonial expansion and the development of trade networks?
Global Exchanges Reshape the World 51 Shifts in Economic Power 53 The Columbian Exchange 54 Historical Perspectives: What Was the Impact of European Exploration? 56 Topic Practice Questions 57
Topic 1.9 The Slave Trade 60 Essential Question: What caused the slave trade to develop?
Origins of the African Slave Trade 60 Development of the African Slave Trade 61 Topic Practice Questions 63
Topic 1.10 The Commercial Revolution 66 Essential Question: Between 1450 to 1648, what European commercial and
agricultural developments took place and what were the economic effects?
Economic Patterns 67 Subsistence Farming and Commercial Agriculture 69 Serfdom, Peasants, and Revolts 72 Commerce and the Growth of Cities 73 Topic Practice Questions 76
Topic 1.11 Causation in the Renaissance and Age of Discovery 78 Essential Question: What were the causes and consequences of the
Renaissance and the Age of Discovery?
Questions About Causation 79
UNIT 1—Review 80 Write as a Historian: Understanding the Prompt 80 Long Essay Questions 82 Document-Based Question 82
UNIT 2 — The Age of Reformation c. 1450 to c. 1648
Topic 2.1 Contextualizing 16th- and 17th-Century Challenges
and Developments 87
Essential Question: What was the context in which the religious, political, and cultural developments of the 16th and 17th centuries took place?
Analyze the Context 88
Topic 2.2 Luther and the Protestant Reformation 89 Essential Question: How and why did religious beliefs and practices change
rom 1450 to 1648?
Martin Luther Establishes New Doctrine 89 Calvin Brings New Interpretations 91 Responses to Luther and Calvin 92 Historical Perspectives: How German Was Luther? 94 Topic Practice Questions 95

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