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 Colonial Expansion and Columbian Exchange
And afterwards I did send for a cup of tea (a China drink) of which I never had drank before.
—Samuel Pepys, diary entry Tuesday, September 25, 1660; this is the first written record of an English person drinking tea
As new trade networks developed and countries increased their colonization efforts, cultures around the globe began to influence one another in new ways:
• Economic changes led to poverty for many and vast wealth for some. For example, the international banking industry grew more powerful and profitable, and the insurance industry emerged.
• Social changes led to improved nutrition as plants and animals were transported to new places. New leisure activities emerged. For example, coffee is not native to Europe, but coffeehouses became popular there.
• Cultural changes included the spread of languages and religions— sometimes voluntarily, but other times by force.
Global Exchanges Reshape the World
Before the era of expansion, the Mediterranean Sea was the center of European maritime trade and naval power. States that bordered the Mediterranean— such as the Italian city-states, Spain, and France—were the most powerful. Foreign trade around the Mediterranean focused on the region to the east controlled by the Ottoman Empire. For example, the Italian city-state of Venice had been an especially significant port where trade from Asia entered Europe. But beginning in about 1420 with the settlement of the Madeira Islands off the coast of North Africa, Portugal began its era of exploration, international trade, and overseas empire and would eventually challenge Venetian dominance.
Portuguese Trading Network
The Portuguese were the first to begin systematically exploring to increase overseas trade. Under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator
 Essential Question: What were the economic, social, and cultural impacts of European colonial expansion and the development of trade networks?
Topic 1.8

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