Page 75 - ap-european-history-2-sampler
P. 75

 Plants:
Animals:
Plants:
Wheat Sugar Coffee Orange
Animals: Diseases:
Horses Typhus Pigs Influenza Cows Measles Sheep Smallpox
Ideas & Tech:
Alphabet
Gunpowder weapons
From the Africa and Eurasia to the Americas
From the Americas to Africa and Eurasia
The Americas
Africa and Eurasia
Potatoes
Tomatoes
Chocolate
Corn
Tobacco
Diseases: Rubber Syphillis Quinine
Turkeys Llamas Alpacas Guinea pigs Ideas & Tech:
THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
Economic Opportunities Europeans profited in many ways from the Columbian Exchange. For example, by establishing plantations to grow sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, and cotton in different parts of the Americas, Europeans cultivated lucrative cash crops that could be sold directly to a growing European market. Because Europeans relied largely on forced labor of indigenous peoples and enslaved Africans, their costs to grow the crops were low. In addition, the slave trade itself was a source of profit.
Livestock—including cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses—provided another economic opportunity for Europeans. Settlers brought animals from the Old World to the New World, where they had lots of space to graze and few natural predators. Herds were raised for their meat, hides, and wool, which could all be sold at a profit.
Ecological Disasters Old World plants, animals, and diseases came to the New World along with European settlers. The results were often devastating. Plants and animals in the New World were destroyed, as the introduction of Old World plants, including weeds, often edged out native species.
Extensive grazing by European livestock eroded the soil in many areas and made it difficult for native species to grow. Some areas began to look like deserts as the soil eroded. Europeans also cleared forests, often by large-scale burning to create open land for settlements, grazing, and crops, further damaging the environment.
Diseases By far, the worst disaster was the introduction of European diseases, such as smallpox and measles. Peoples of the Americas had never been exposed to these diseases. As a result, their bodies had not built up immunity, or resistance, to them as Europeans had over several centuries. As soon as Europeans arrived, epidemics began devastating the native population.
TOPIC 1.8 COLONIAL ExPANSION AND COLUMBIAN ExCHANGE 55








































































   73   74   75   76   77