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Many new businesses came into existence throughout this period. The businesses that caused the most pollution, such as slaughterhouses, were set up outside the city walls. Building new shipping docks along the river led to the construction of poorly built huts nearby to house workers.
London’s population grew steadily. In 1600, it was 250,000. By 1815, it reached 1.5 million.
Paris In the 14th century, the Great Plague and the Hundred Years’ War prevented Paris from developing rapidly. As France became increasingly centralized, its larger cities—such as the capital, Paris—became increasingly important and prestigious. In the 16th century, nobles and merchants began building elaborate mansions there. The first theater in Paris was established in 1548. By 1702, the population of Paris had risen to almost 600,000.
However, life in Paris could be hard for someone without much wealth. A committee that met in the city in 1666 noted problems with violence, a lack of clean drinking water, and price gouging (sellers charging unfairly high prices) for bread and meat. But the worst problem was pollution. There was little plumbing and no garbage collection, so people threw human waste, animal waste, and trash in the streets. Although the committee made rules and imposed fines to improve city life, poverty and overcrowding in Paris and other large cities of the time made life challenging.
REFLECT ON THE ESSENTIAL QUESTION
Essential Question: What were European commercial and agricultural developments and their economic and social effects from 1450 to 1648?
    Economic Effects
  Social Effects
       KEY TERMS
capital
capitalism
means of production market
market economy entrepreneurs
Medici
Fuggers
money economy double-entry bookkeeping joint-stock company
stock
dividends
Dutch East India Company British East India Company Genoa
Amsterdam
London
commerce
hierarchy
manor
landlord
peasants
serfdom
subsistence agriculture Little Ice Age
Great Plague (Black Death) open-field system
the commons
crop rotation
two-field system three-field system inflation
price revolution commercial agriculture enclosure
agricultural commodities migrants
 TOPIC 1.10 THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION 75
































































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