Page 96 - ap-european-history-2-sampler
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Questions 1–3 refer to the following passage.
“For in whatever parts of the land sheep yield the finest and thus the most expensive wool, there the nobility and gentry, yes, and even some abbots [heads of monasteries] though otherwise holy men, are not content with the old rents that the land yielded to their predecessors. Living in idleness and luxury without doing society any good no longer satisfies them; they have to do positive evil.
For they leave no land free for the plough: they enclose every acre for pasture; they destroy houses and abolish towns, keeping only the churches—and those for sheep-barns.... Thus one greedy, insatiable glutton, a frightful plague to his native country, may enclose many thousands of acres within a single hedge. The tenants are dismissed and compelled, by trickery or brute force or constant harassment, to sell their belongings. One way or another, these wretched people—men, women, husbands, wives, orphans, widows, parents with little children and entire families ... are forced to move out. They leave the only homes familiar to them, and can find no place to go. Since they must leave at once without waiting for a proper buyer, they sell for a pittance [almost nothing] all their household goods .... When that little money is gone (and it’s soon spent in wandering from place to place), what remains for them but to steal, and so be hanged—just, you’d say!—or to wander and beg?....
‘To make this hideous poverty worse, it exists side by side with wanton [uncontrolled] luxury.... If you don’t try to cure these evils, it is futile [pointless] to boast of your severity in punishing theft. Your policy may look superficially [on the surface] like justice, but in reality it is neither just nor practical.’ ”
—Thomas More, Utopia (1516), revised edition, George M. Logan and Robert M. Adams, 1989
1. The passage describes developments resulting most directly from which trend in 15th-century Europe?
(A) The long tradition of subsistence agriculture
(B) TheincreaseinpeasantrevoltsinWesternEurope
(C) The exploration of lands beyond Europe
(D) The beginnings of the commercialization of agriculture

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